LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

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LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 on Mon 11 Jan 2010, 11:18 pm

ASSIGNMENT 1



Question 2(a) - Thinking, definition
The definition of THINKING
Thinking is processes, judgement, reflection that allows beings to model the world and to represent it according to their objectives, plans, ends and desires.  Thinking is the act or practice of one that thinks; thought. It is also a way of reasoning or judgement.  Accoding to Collins English Dictionary (6th ed., 2003) thinking is defined as opinion or judgement; the process of thought. Here are the other definitions of thinking:

“Action of using one’s mind to produce thoughts, or convert symbolic responses to stimuli. Theories of thought processes have concentrated largely on directed thinking, including problem solving.”
– Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, 2006.

“The cognitive process of forming mental images or concepts… The process of cognitive problem solving through the sorting, organizing, and classification of facts and relationships.”
– Mosby’s Dental Dictionary, 2004.

Thinking means forming a correct picture of the world. Thinking is based on undisturbed perceptions. Thinking is not based on words, terms or concepts. Instead objective thinking is based on ordinary sensory perceptions and on memories of sensory perceptions.

The word thinking is often used loosely to refer to almost anything that goes on in our heads, it can be day-dreaming, imagination, guessing, remembering or understanding. In psychological theory and research, however, the term has acquired a more restricted meaning and has become identified with problem-solving.  

All thinking is defined by the eight elements that make it up. Thinking:  
(i) generates purposes, goals, objectives
(ii) raises questions
(iii) uses information
(iv) utilizes concepts
(v) makes inferences
(vi) makes assumptions
(vii) generates implications
(viii) embodies a point of view

Types of Thinking
Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, or downright prejudiced. Yet, the quality of our life and of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life.  If we want to think well, we must more or less grip the understanding of various thinking patterns, in order to be adopted in different situations, to come out with fresh ideas, or to effectively resolve problems we face every day.

Analytical thinking
Analytic thinking is the abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations.  Analytical thinking shows that most of what we take to be clear in our minds is little more than an unexamined acceptance of the language with which we describe our superficial understanding of our experiences as opposed to the reality beyond our sense data. Analytical thinking is historically quite recent. Analytical thinking is powerful. It is focused, sharp, deals with one thing at a time, linear, contains time, is deconstructive, is brain centered and tends to the abstract. As far as Western civilization is concerned, the classical Greeks introduced analytical thinking. From the historical perspective, the Romans built straight roads with this thinking, but the Dark Ages lost it which then rediscovered by the Enlightenment.  Analytical thinking follows the Scientific Approach where five-step processes are taken:
(i) Define the problem
(ii) Test in the form of hypothesis
(iii) Focus on facts
(iv) Analysis using various analytical tools
(v) Recommend a solution
Activities regarding to analysis are beneficial in helping us for better understanding in complex situation and. Analytical analysis can be generally grouped into three categories:
(i) Analyze to understand a complex situation by scattering the situation into small elements.
(ii) Analyze to understand the causal relationship between events that occurred. This further analyzes the types and characteristics of interaction that occur.
(iii) Analyze for better understanding about the similarities and differences between two objects, matters or events. We can then compare the pros and cons.

Analytical thinking is efficient in the conditions of having: sufficient time, relatively static conditions, a clear differentiation between the observer and the observed. It is best suited for dealing with complexities, and works best when there are established criteria (e.g. rules, laws and regulations) for the analysis. It is important when an explanation is seek and choosing the best option.

Intuitive thinking
Intuitive thinking is unfocused, nonlinear, contains “no time”, sees many things at once, views the big picture, contains perspective, is heart centered, oriented in space and time, and tends to the real or concrete. In fact, intuitive thinking has contrasting qualities of analytic thinking. It comes into its own under time pressure and the differentiation between observer and observed is unclear. It works best where the observer has experience in the particular situation. Intuition is experience translated by expertise to produce rapid action. Intuition is limited where the task is complex and uncertain, where the observer lacks of experience, or the observation is distorted by biases or fixed ideas. It has weakness in producing a fixed mindset or conclusion that ignores new data. Intuitive thinking is ineffective for predicting the stock market or for dissecting a legal problem.

When analytical and intuitive abilities are combined, the result is holistic. Table below compares the features of analytical versus intuitive thinking.  
ANALYTICAL INTUITIVE
Time No time
Static Dynamic
Linear Non-linear
One thing Many things
Small picture Big picture
Focused Non-focused
Deliberative Instantaneous
No perspective Perspective
Classroom taught Experience taught
Objective Subjective
Best option Workable option
Needed when explanation required Needed when action required
Deconstructive Constructive
Brain centered Heart centered
Abstract Concrete
Historically new Historically old
Lawyers Firefighter

TABLE 1 | Comparison between analytic and intuitive thinking.


Reactive thinking
Reactive thinking, intuitively, means that we have no reason to think about if nothing happening around us. The word reactive implies that we do not have the initiative to think. We let an event set an agenda.  We are waiting to think only thereafter something had happened or we had experienced or realized something. Hence, our box of thinking is restricted by the matters or events that had happened. For example, the authorities are reactive towards landslide incident happened in last year. They only think seriously when the devastating catastrophe happened, engulfing numbers of victims. Reactive thinkers lag behind the others. They think what others had been thinking and doing.

Reactive thinking focuses a lot around causation, and thus it is the most efficient business thinking method under a predictable condition. This is often found in a lawyer’s and an accountant’s mind. This is also largely the pattern of people who work in larger organizations. Reactive thinking is powerful when we target continuous improvement. It is very useful when you are dealing with marketing and operational improvement on an ongoing basis.

Beneath shows the strengths and weaknesses of Reactive Thinking :
Strengths
Reactive thinking is an efficient problem solving approach
Reactive thinking is widely applicable where almost all daily analyses and decision-makings should be based on reactive thinking
Since it has causal explanations, it is persuasive
Reactive thinking is powerful when we target continuous improvement
It is time efficient

Weaknesses
It is applicable only when business conditions are stable.
Reactive thinking cannot propose drastic changes.

Proactive thinking
Proactive thinking is marked by the initiative to think before an event occurs. The objectives of proactive thinking are:
(a) Think before the others
(b) Think before the occurrence of an event
(c) Think the preparations for any unpredictable event
(d) Think for our future plans

Proactive thinking can help to escape from causation, which is applicable only under predictable business situations, by adopting mechanical analysis, which is typically realized by the lateral thinking. It is the most powerful pattern if we apply it in managing unknowns and create a breakthrough in stagnant situation. It is not for managing everyday repetitive tasks.

Although proactive thinking is a powerful approach to consider uncertain future situations, it is not a conventional thinking approach. The strengths and weaknesses of proactive thinking are:
Strength
Proactive thinking is useful to break through a current situation.
It is efficient to conceive alternatives.
It is competitive under an uncertain business condition.

Weaknesses
Results of proactive thinking are possible scenarios instead of plausible.
Results are less persuasive due to the lack of causation consideration.
It is not applicable to daily business thinking.
It is time-consuming.

Historical thinking
Academics tend to view historical thinking as being about contextualization, understanding change, empathy and developing skills in scholarship. By contrast, students are more likely to see historical thinking as the relationship between the past and the present. Students most often associated historical thinking with reading books and journal articles.

Analysis using historical thinking only helps in understanding the roots of problems, yet, unable to resolve. Historical thinking looks back into history. This thinking style is beneficial if we intend to understand history. It is important for us to grasp the reasons of difficulties and failures in the past in order to serve as a deterrent for now and our future.

Pragmatic thinking
Pragmatic, by definition, means that someone is treating things in a sensible and realistic way, concerned with practical results.  Pragmatic thinking emphasizes the following the points/questions:
Does an idea made can be implemented or practiced? Good idea should be emphasized instead of other better ideas which are difficult to implement.
Does an idea fit the situation? Ideas which comforting with situation should be adopted although it is non-perfect.
Does an idea give immediate benefits? Fruitfully ideas should be practiced especially the ones with immediate effects.
Are all practical aspects taken into account? Idea that resolves problems one by one is more practical than the one which resolves all problems at once.
Keep in mind ‘what will happen if…’. Think what should be done if our plan or idea failed to implement. Therefore, pragmatic thinking is not positive straight-forwarded thinking. Each plan should be equipped with an alternative plan.
Technical thinking
Traditional thinking introduced by philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle do not take “invention” thinking, which is part of the technical thinking, into account.  Western intellectuals refuse the existence of technical thinking. That is why our mainstream universities are imparted logical-analytical thinking and ignoring technical knowledge. However, technical thinking is heavily emphasized in polytechnics and vocational schools.

Logical thinking
Logical thinking is the process in which one uses reasoning consistently to come to a conclusion. In his book Brain Building, Dr. Karl Albrecht says that the basis of all logical thinking is sequential thought (thought sequentially).  This process involves taking the important ideas, facts and conclusions involved in a problem and arranging them in a chain-like progression that takes on a meaning in and of itself. To think logically is to think in steps.

The ability to think logically is of immense practical importance in our daily lives. Day after day, from moment to moment, we are busy interpreting available evidence and making predictions on what will happen next. When we walk along the sidewalk, it is my safe to put a foot forward for the next step.

Logical thinking is in a way the opposite of short-term memory. Short-term memory is the skill that enables one to keep track of the immediate past. Logical thinking allows one to keep track of the immediate future. The two skills are closely connected. They are like a painter sweeping his brush – the beginning-sweep naturally leads into the end-sweep. The person who has a poor short-term memory will therefore naturally have a weak ability to think logically because the one leads to the other.

Constructive thinking
Constructive thinking should be thought of as a way in which you think constructively about the world around you. Instead of allowing ourselves to react to the events that occur in our life, we will first learn to interpret these events. The key to constructive thinking is understanding that interpretations often will have an influence on our emotions. A person with constructive thinking is someone who sees the glass as being half full. They maintain a proper interpretation of the events which occur in their life.

Constructive thinker tends to:
(i) contribute concrete suggestions towards idealizing an idea
(ii) find the best feasible solution for problem
(iii) find measures to ensure that an idea is workable
(iv) state additional evidence to support an idea

Hypothetical thinking
Hypothetical thought involves the imagination of possibilities and the exploration of their consequences by a process of mental simulation. Hypothesis thinking does not require collecting all information. We develop a hypothesis based on available information. After we developed a hypothesis, we collect minimum information to prove the hypothesis. If the first hypothesis is right, you do not have to collect any more information. If the first hypothesis is wrong, we will develop the next hypothesis based on available information. Hypothesis thinking is a very efficient problem-solving method, because we do not have to waste time to collect unnecessary information.

Systematic thinking
Systematic thinking follows the definition of think methodologically. This is not to be confused with systems thinking, which is a way of helping a person to view systems (by means of system theory) from a broad perspective that includes seeing overall structures, patterns and cycles in systems, rather than seeing only specific events in the system.

Systematic thinking is a way of life for those who excel in their lives and professions. Regardless of their independent professions with subtle differences, they all think very alike. There are 5 steps in systematic thinking:
(i) Set the bar high
With each hurdle crossed you can begin to think in small steps in order to pave the way to bigger goal.
(ii) Give thought is due time
Short thoughts may generate wonderful solutions, but not always. With business and life problems getting more and more complex as you move further down the road, looking for the quick way out can be a grave mistake. Hard, long thinking about problems can open avenues to helpful information.
(iii) Defy the myths
Complex problems sometimes call for radical thinking. Dare to defy the myths. Galileo uprooted the natural belief that earth was not round. Going around the earth would not have revealed to Galileo that the earth is round. Instead, he chose to think radical ways. Throughout history, those who have failed to challenge the status quo have often been proven wrong.
(iv) Channelize your thoughts
documenting and recording your thoughts helps to put things in perspective and saves them for future examination. Many ideas and thoughts cross everyone’s mind every day. Even the impractical thoughts deserve to be examined before discarding them. Thomas Edison took several years to develop that light bulb, trying out various options – but he never forgot to record each one of his steps, including failures, which ultimately prevented him from duplicating his efforts.
(v) Work within a time frame
Give yourself a specific timeframe within to solve a specific problem. Otherwise, you may never come to the end.

Briefly, we are grouped the 5-steps approach into:
(i) Identify and analyze the problem before jumping into action
(ii) Formulate multiple options
(iii) Define and establish a selection criteria
(iv) Be hold and make a final decision

Projective thinking
Projective thinking is the ability to predict something that has yet to be happened. Thinking skills by projective is important to prevent various decisions and actions that suspected to be right in now but is then being proved to be wrong.

Negative thinking
Negative thinking has an objective of viewing situations from the bad perspective as risky, dangerous and problems. Thinking negatively is useful in certain circumstances. For example, we can avoid failure and mistake by thinking from the bad side and prepare alternative idea or plan instead. However, thinking negatively too frequently will block our creativity. Negative thinking is categorized under vertical thinking (see vertical thinking).

Negative thinking appears to be more prevalent than positive thinking. It seems that with most people positive thinking requires some effort, whereas negative thinking comes easily and uninvited.

Positive thinking
Positive thinking is a mental attitude that admits into the mind thoughts, words and images that are conductive to growth, expansion and success. It is a mental attitude that expects good and favourable results. A positive mind anticipates happiness, joy, health and a successful outcome of every situation and action.

Not everyone accepts or believes in positive thinking. Some consider the subject as just nonsense, and others scoff at people who believe and accept it. It is quite common to hear people say: “Think positively!” However, most people do not take these words seriously, as they do not consider them as useful and effective. In order to turn the mind toward the positive, inner work and training are required. Attitude and thoughts do not change overnight. The power of thoughts is a mighty power that is always shaping our life. Ignore what others might say or think about you, if they discover that you are changing the way you think.

Positive thinking is a key part of effective stress management. Positive thinking does not mean that you keep your head in the sand and ignore life’s less pleasant situations. It just means that you approach the unpleasantness in a more positive and productive way. Researchers continue to explore the efforts of positive thinking and optimism on health. Health benefits that positive thinking may provide include: increased life span, lower rates of depression, lower levels of distress, greater resistance to the common cold, better psychological and physical well-being, and many more.

Value focused thinking
Value-focused thinking is a philosophy to guide decision makers. It has three major ideas: start with values, use values to generate better alternatives, and use values to evaluate those alternatives.
Start with values. Instead of starting with alternatives, start with the decision makers’ and stakeholders’ objectives.
Generate better alternatives. Once you’ve identified values, use them to generate better alternatives.
Use values to evaluate alternatives. Finally, use the values to evaluate alternatives through the operations-research technique called multiple objective decision analysis.

There are two important resources of living-value: religion and moral. Every idea and invention based on creativity will be evaluated from the perspective of values upholding by our community. Only ideas which are in line with good values will be accepted.

Emotive/Emotional thinking
Human beings, by nature, only develop a primitive form of thought: emotive thinking. This thinking has a highly regulative function, in so far as it orders the sensations and perceptions of our experience. Since experience is tantamount to feeling, emotive thinking has most important and biologically useful function of structuring the world we experience through our sense. However, since feeling is characterized as being subjective, experience and emotive preconceptions, prejudices, character, attitudes, views, social norms, cultural values, etc.

Emotional thinking sits opposite informational thinking. Emotional thinking is the most un-neutral of all the thinking de Bono identifies. For this thinking, because of its fire and passion, de Bono assigns Red Hat status (see the Six Thinking Hats).

Emotive thinking style usually shows the following aspects:
(i) Give emotional value in what we think. In other words, we are reasoning situations according to our emotions.
(ii) Does not emphasize on logical and concordance between mind and decision. In fact, emotive thinking has its own logic and does not necessary follow the rational logic. Emotive thinking usually does not convince the one with high-educational.
(iii) Use various emotions in depth to express his thinking.

Vertical thinking
Vertical thinking is a type of approach to problems that usually involves one being selective, analytical, and sequential. It could be said that it is the opposite of lateral thinking (see lateral thinking).  Vertical thinking is the refinement and improvement of existing ideas. Vertical thinking likewise is created by Edward de Bono. Vertical thinking refers to mental which ‘moves’ like a straight line in vertical direction. It moves up and down from lower stage to higher stage of concepts.

De Bono compared vertical thinking with lateral thinking in terms of digging hole:
“You cannot dig a hole in a different place by digging the same hole deeper. Vertical thinking digs the same hole deeper; lateral thinking is concerned with digging a hole in another place.”
– Edward de Bono

We summarize the comparison of vertical and lateral thinking below.
Vertical Lateral
Analytical Provocative
One has to be correct at every step One does not have to be
Sequential Can make jumps
One uses the negative in order to block certainty There is no negative
One concentrates and excludes what is irrelevant One welcomes chance intrusions
Classifications and labels are fixed Classifications and labels are not fixed
Follows the most likely path Explores the least likely
Finite process Probabilistic process

Table 2 | Comparisons between vertical and lateral thinking.

Parallel thinking
Parallel thinking is defined as a thinking processing where focus is split in specific directions.  Parallel thinking is a further development of the well known lateral thinking processes (see lateral thinking), focusing even more on explorations – looking for what can be rather than for what is.  

Parallel thinking is a term coined and implemented by Edward de Bono. Edward explained parallel thinking as:
“Parallel thinking simply means laying down idea alongside each other. There is no clash, no dispute, no initial true/false judgement.”
– Edward de Bono

Dr. Edward de Bono invented the de Bono Hats system (also known as “Six Hats” or “Six Thinking Hats”), which is a model that can be used for exploring different perspective towards a complex situation or challenge. Seeing things in various ways is often a good idea in strategy formation or complex decision-making processes. Each of the Hats is named for a colour that is mnemonically descriptive of the perspective one adopts when wearing the particular hat. The 6 hats and the perspectives they represent are:  

(a) White : considering purely what information is available, what are the facts; objective, facts, what is needed, how it can be obtained
(b) Red : instinctive gut reaction or statement of emotional feeling (but not any justification); emotions, feelings, intuition
(c) Black : logic applied to identifying flaws or barriers, seeking mismatch; logical positive view
(d) Yellow : logic applied to identifying benefits, seeking harmony
(e) Green : statements of provocation and investigation, seeing where a thought goes; creative thinking
(f) Blue : thinking about thinking; control of process, steps, other hats

Lateral thinking
Lateral thinking is a way of thinking “around” a problem. Lateral thinking generates the ideas and vertical thinking develops them. Lateral thinking is then sometimes used as a synonym for creative thinking or idea discovery.

Edward de Bono coined the term ‘lateral thinking’ to describe the shift needed to take you to a different, more creative mode of thinking. In terms of digging a hole, ‘vertical thinking’ would represent digging more deeply in the same place and staying within the same perceptual framework. By contrast, lateral thinking represents the willingness to move to a different position and a different perceptual framework and start digging a fresh hole.

Regarding to lateral thinking techniques, de Bono has devised a number of techniques to facilitate lateral thinking and creativity. One of these is termed ‘provocation’, and here we aim to stimulate fresh thinking by throwing in a crazy idea, i.e. provocation, then explore the implications of our provocation.

“Lateral thinking seeks to get away from the patterns that are leading one in a definite direction and to move sideways by re-forming the patterns. Lateral thinking is necessary precisely because the brain functions so well in the vertical fashion.”
- Edward de Bono

The world’s most famous fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes, often exhibited lateral thinking. One of the examples was Holmes’ response to an idea by his faithful assistant, the good Dr. Watson. Watson pointed out that a certain god would not be at all helpful in solving a mystery because the dog had done nothing on the night of the murder. Sherlock cleverly noted that the dog was extremely important in solving the mystery precisely because he had done nothing on the night of the murder because dogs would be expected to bark or become excited at the sight of strangers or of violent struggles.

Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking is a series of logical rational steps based on the scientific method of defining, analyzing and solving a problem.

Reflective thinking style was first introduced by John Dewey. Dewey’s definition of reflective thinking repeated over the years was:
“Active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of grounds that support it and further conclusion to which it tends”.
– John Dewey, 1993

Reflective thinking is not about logic. Reflection leads to growth of the individual – morally, personally, psychological, and emotionally, as well as cognitively. Reflection can help us to:
Better understand our strength and weaknesses
Identify and question our underlying values and beliefs
Acknowledge our fears
Recognize areas of potential bias or discrimination
Identify possible inadequacies or area for improvement

Reflection can lead to greater self-awareness, which in turn is a first step to positive change – it is a necessary stage in identifying areas for improvement and growth in both personal and professional contexts.

Critical thinking
Critical thinking is a set of conceptual tools with associated intellectual skills and strategies useful for making reasonable decisions about what to do or believe. This formulation can be condensed to this: Critical thinking is using reason to make up your mind.

Lots of people seem to think that the word “critical” involves negativity almost by definition; criticism is faultfinding and a critic is a faultfinder, so anything with the word “critical” in its name must be similarly concerned with negative things. The word “critical” and its cognates, “criticism”, “critic”, “critique”, and so on, all derive from the Greek word kritikos, for discernment or the ability to judge, which in turn derives from the Greek word krinein, for decision making.  Critical thinking – it is concerned with decision making. It is interested in both the pros and the cons.

This is convergent thinking (see convergent thinking). It assesses the worth and validity of something existent. It involves precise, persistent, objective analysis. When teachers try to get several learners to think convergently, they try to help them develop common understanding.

“Critical thinking is self-guided, self-disciplines thinking which attempts to reason at the highest level of quality in a fair-minded way. People who think critically consistently attempt to live rationally, reasonably and empathically. They are keenly aware of the inherently flawed nature of human thinking when left unchecked. They strive to diminish the power of their egocentric and sociocentric tendencies. They use the intellectual tools that critical thinking offers – concepts and principles that enable them to analyze, assess, and improve thinking. They work diligently to develop the intellectual virtues of intellectual integrity, intellectual humility, intellectual civility, intellectual empathy, intellectual sense of justice and confidence in reason. They realize that no matter how skilled they are as thinkers, they can always improve their reasoning abilities and they will at times fall prey to mistakes in reasoning, human irrationality, prejudices, biases, distortions, uncritically accepted social rules and taboos, self-interest, and vested interest. They strive to improve the world in whatever ways they can and contribute to a more rational, civilized society. At the same time, they recognize the complexities often inherent in doing so. They strive never to think simplistically about complicated issues and always to consider the rights and needs of relevant others. They recognize the complexities in developing as thinkers, and commit themselves to life-long practice toward self-improvement. They embody the Socratic principle: The unexamined life is not worth living, because they realize that many unexamined lives together result in an uncritical, unjust, dangerous world."
– Linda Elder, September, 2007

Creative thinking
Creative thinking is the process which we use when we come up with a new idea. It is the merging of ideas. This is divergent thinking (see divergent thinking). It generates something new or different. It involves having a different idea that works as well or better than previous ideas.

Brainstorming is one form of creative thinking: it works by merging someone else’s ideas with our own to create a new one. We are using the ideas of others as a stimulus for our own. Creative thinking process can be accidental or deliberate. Without using special techniques creative thinking does still occur, but usually in the accidental way. Using accidental or logical progression process often takes a long time for products to develop and improve.

Using special techniques, deliberate creative thinking can be used to develop new ideas. These techniques force the emergence of a wide range of ideas to spark off new thoughts and processes. Brainstorming is one of these special techniques, but traditionally it starts with unoriginal ideas.

Convergent thinking
Convergent thinking is the ability to narrow the number of possible solutions to a problem by applying logic and knowledge.  This type of thinking is cognitive processing of information around a common point, an attempt to bring thoughts from different directions into a union or common conclusion. Convergent thinking occurs when a person gathers facts evidence or experiences from a variety of source to solve a problem. The result is one answer that hopefully correct. In school, we have learnt a large amount of knowledge that could be classed as factual. We have often been tested for the correct answers, so in many cases convergent thinking comes natural to us.

The term convergent thinking was coined by J. P. Guilford, a psychologist well-known for his research on creativity. Convergent thinking, which narrows all options to one solution, corresponds closely to the types of tasks usually called for in school and on standardized multiple-choice tests. This is perhaps the more predominant style of thinking in contemporary technological society. In convergent thought, we locate a problem at the centre of our focus and then gather peripheral resources to bear down on the problem. So then our resources “converge” on the problem. Often times with convergent thinking, there is a single best solution that is sought. It is generally associated with math and science.

Divergent thinking
Divergent thinking is the ability to develop original and unique ideas and to envision multiple solutions to a problem.  This type of thinking starts from a common point and moves outward into a variety of perspectives. This is a term coined by J. P. (Joy Paul) Guildford. Guildford posited that a prime component of creativity is divergent thinking, the capacity to arrive at unique and original solutions and the tendency to consider problems in terms of multiple solutions rather than just one. Divergent thinking is generally associated with the humanities and fine arts.

Divergent thinking occurs when we start with a stimulus and rather than look for one answer instead generate many idea or possible solutions.

Divergent thinking involves some stimulus, which can take the form of a problem, and we can locate this at the centre. Rather than gathering information and converging it on the central problem (convergent thinking), we branch off (diverge) and shoot for novel ideas, new perspectives and creativity. Instead of a single correct answer, there may be a whole host of possibilities. An example of using divergent thinking might involve taking an open-ended test that asks how many uses one can imagine for various objects.

Inductive thinking
This is the process of reasoning from parts to the whole, from examples to generalizations.  Inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Informally, we sometimes call this a “bottom-up” approach. In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures; begin to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories.

Deductive thinking
This type of reasoning moves from the whole to its parts, from generalizations to underlying concepts to examples. Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is informally called a “top-down” approach. We might begin with thinking up a theory about our topic of interest. We then narrow that down into more specific hypotheses that we can test. We narrow down even further when we collect observations to address the hypotheses. This ultimately leads us to be able to test the hypotheses with specific data – a confirmation (or not) of our original theories.54

Question 2(b) - Types of thinking that suiting me?
At present time, analytic thinking is playing a key role in my study. Analyze and understand every spoon-fed factual data, instead of memorizing blindly. Analyzing a problem by means of separating it into smaller constituents enables me to understand the situation better. Other than that, think logically helps me to think matters sequentially, rather than messing up together, so that I can see everything more clearly.

In my opinion, positive thinking is a life-long must have thinking. Be optimistic, every problem carries a solution behind. Our perseverance will meet the solution. Pessimistic will definitely affect our mood, which is detrimental to our health. However, during certain circumstances, we should think negatively, especially in preparing alternative solutions for a well-planned event, or to forecast unpredictable situation.

Another important criterion of thinking is to think critically. Critical thinking is important to recognize the pros and cons of an event. It will definitely help me to act and behave wisely. Think every situation critically without being affected by emotion. Do not let behaviour controlled by emotions. Behaving brutally does not solve any of the problems, but create trouble. Also, think twice before making any crucial decision.

For my future, I wish I could have pragmatic thinking. It is important for me to treat my ideas in a sensible and realistic way, instead of emphasizing perfect but unviable idea. Try to focus on feasible plans, although they are non-ideal. Besides that, historical thinking more or less will help me in my future. Looking backwards helps me to identify problems and failures, so that I will not follow in my footsteps which have proved to be wrong.

Of course, I would like to be more creative in future time. Creative thinking (or lateral thinking) enables me to come up with new idea. As an engineer, I should not being ‘tie up’ by old-fashion facts and technical knowledge. Instead, contributing new ideas may help improving our community.
No matter what types of good thinking we would like to have in the future time, without paying hard efforts, none of the thinking will gradually come to our mind, except the bad one. As such, keep practicing our mind and reading on thinking-related articles are good initiatives towards achieving our goal.


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Last edited by LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 on Tue 15 Dec 2015, 3:57 pm; edited 3 times in total

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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  tohguoshenkew080021 on Tue 12 Jan 2010, 9:42 am

wow~
it is so long and comprehensive

excellent!

your dream will come true..as long as you keep it up like what you do usually .... push it to the boundry...

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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  Chan Xing Khuan KEW080005 on Tue 12 Jan 2010, 7:44 pm

As usual.. a very well done assignment by you afro

Yea we should look forward and never regret in what we had decided, i'm sure you'll have a successful life in the future Cool
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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  Cheah Meng Kit KEW080006 on Tue 12 Jan 2010, 7:45 pm

affraid The file is quite big. I cant download it using the college line. zZz Sleep
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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  Chia Li - Yan KEW080007 on Tue 12 Jan 2010, 7:50 pm

you can just turn your head around and ask for it since you guys are roommates you know...=.=
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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  Chan Xing Khuan KEW080005 on Tue 12 Jan 2010, 8:05 pm

Chia Li - Yan KEW080007 wrote:you can just turn your head around and ask for it since you guys are roommates you know...=.=
No they're not roommate.. BUT they live in same college albino
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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  WongKiaMing KEW080025 on Tue 12 Jan 2010, 10:05 pm

Nicely done!! =D

Your wish will come true as long as you keep it up!
Gambateh!
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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  Leong Jia Wei KEW080013 on Tue 12 Jan 2010, 11:05 pm

S.U.P.E.R.B. Enough said.
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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 on Wed 13 Jan 2010, 3:08 am

tohguoshenkew080021 wrote: wow~
it is so long and comprehensive

excellent!

your dream will come true..as long as you keep it up like what you do usually .... push it to the boundry...

thank you! Laughing
you know? when i looked back, probably the semester that i missed most was semester 1, when we were roommate. thanks for giving me best memory in my university life so far.
i really appreciate to have you as my friend! Wink

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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 on Wed 13 Jan 2010, 3:13 am

Chan Xing Khuan KEW080005 wrote:As usual.. a very well done assignment by you afro

Yea we should look forward and never regret in what we had decided, i'm sure you'll have a successful life in the future Cool

you too... i am sure you will become a very successful engineer!!! Very Happy

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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 on Wed 13 Jan 2010, 3:17 am

Cheah Meng Kit KEW080006 wrote:affraid The file is quite big. I cant download it using the college line. zZz Sleep

haha.. it's ok~ uploading is more faster than downloading... haha!
watsoever, thanks for your willingness to download! Laughing

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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 on Wed 13 Jan 2010, 3:20 am

Chia Li - Yan KEW080007 wrote:you can just turn your head around and ask for it since you guys are roommates you know...=.=

huh??? i don't understand what u meant~ No
scratch scratch scratch scratch

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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 on Wed 13 Jan 2010, 3:21 am

Chan Xing Khuan KEW080005 wrote:
Chia Li - Yan KEW080007 wrote:you can just turn your head around and ask for it since you guys are roommates you know...=.=
No they're not roommate.. BUT they live in same college albino

talking about whom? scratch

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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 on Wed 13 Jan 2010, 3:24 am

WongKiaMing KEW080025 wrote:Nicely done!! =D

Your wish will come true as long as you keep it up!
Gambateh!

thank you, Gerald! by the way, i will still playing castle age~ don't worry... call me to arm when needed~ Razz

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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 on Wed 13 Jan 2010, 3:26 am

Leong Jia Wei KEW080013 wrote:S.U.P.E.R.B. Enough said.

Thanks. Enough said...
lol!

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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  Chan Xing Khuan KEW080005 on Wed 13 Jan 2010, 8:58 pm

LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 wrote:
Chan Xing Khuan KEW080005 wrote:
Chia Li - Yan KEW080007 wrote:you can just turn your head around and ask for it since you guys are roommates you know...=.=
No they're not roommate.. BUT they live in same college albino

talking about whom? scratch
I mean meng kit and jia wei is not your roommate~ but stay at same coll lol!
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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  Chia Li - Yan KEW080007 on Thu 14 Jan 2010, 12:27 am

LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012 wrote:
Chan Xing Khuan KEW080005 wrote:
Chia Li - Yan KEW080007 wrote:you can just turn your head around and ask for it since you guys are roommates you know...=.=
No they're not roommate.. BUT they live in same college albino

talking about whom? scratch

bout meng kit not being able to download...haha nvm la
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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  Leong Jia Wei KEW080013 on Sat 16 Jan 2010, 9:28 pm

Cheah Meng Kit KEW080006 wrote:affraid The file is quite big. I cant download it using the college line. zZz Sleep

But I can lol!
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Re: LEE JIAN HSIEN KEW080012

Post  Cheah Meng Kit KEW080006 on Sat 16 Jan 2010, 9:42 pm

Leong Jia Wei KEW080013 wrote:
Cheah Meng Kit KEW080006 wrote:affraid The file is quite big. I cant download it using the college line. zZz Sleep

But I can lol!


I cannot o... pig
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